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Athens Olympic stadium - Case Study Example The immense size of the project and its particular technical complexity were the causes for long delays; the work was finally completed in time and the new captivating stadium was officially reopened on July 30, 2004 (O.A.K.A. 2005). The Athens Olympic stadium roof in the form of a double bowstring tied arch of 80 m high is considered one of the most ingenious modern architectural and engineering projects. This impressive construction of steel and glass is today one of the city's landmarks. Along with its spectacular and pioneering architectural design, the suspended arched roof construction and erection has been a challenge to engineers and an excellent example of integration of construction engineering and hydraulic expertise (Siriani & Di Silverio 2006). The roof structure is in two halves, each comprising a top arch of a diameter of 3.25 m and a lower torsion tube of a diameter of 3.6 m extending for 304 m over the stadium. The wall thicknesses of the tubes are up to 95 mm. All four tubes merge at their ends and are based on four support steel shoes (19 m x 4 m x 4 m) made from 100 mm thick steel plates. The tubes support wire cables that hold polycarbonate panels of a weigh of 17,000 ton in total. 220 girders cantilever out of the torsion tube supporting the panels, thus forming the roof deck. Finally, the panels are covered by a special coating to reflect 60% of the sunlight. Apart from providing shadow, protecting athletes and spectators against the hot Greek summer sun, the roof served as a carrier for telecommunications and security systems during the Games (Siriani & Di Silverio 2006). The layout of Calatrava's roof can be seen in figure 1. Fig.1. The Athens Olympic stadium layout and dimensions of the roof (redrawn from Siriani & Di Silverio 2006). The roof construction project was contracted to the Italian Costruzioni Cimolai Armando Spa of Pordenone. In detail, the stages of the building process were segment fabrication and pre-assembly, segment shipping to construction site, on-site assembly and erection of the two halves of the roof at a distance from the sports arena and finally assembly pulling (sliding) into position. With the exception of the sliding step that was sub-contracted, all remaining stages were undertaken by Cimolai (Siriani & Di Silverio 2006). A number of difficulties arose during the renovations works that were mainly linked to the immense character of the project and the shortage of available time; these issues required technically advanced, ingenious solutions. All steel fabrication works took place at Cimolai's site in Italy, using a 6000 ton press, one of the largest in Europe. The support shoes and pre-assembled tube segments of up to 15 m in length equipped with cable anchorages, diaphragms and girder connections were constructed there and were subsequently shipped by sea to Athens. Shipping has been a gigantic operation due to the excessive size of the segments of the roof (Siriani & Di Silverio 2006). A second particularity of the project was that roof assembly and erection could not take place at its final position, so as to allow other renovation work in the stadium to proceed during the assembly process. Thus each of the arch structures was put together separately on each side of the concrete stadium, at 70 m far from either side. Roof
The basic school curriculum includes the national curriculum, religious education and sex education. The national curriculum is a set of subjects and standards used by primary and secondary schools so children learn the same things it is defined by four key stages to be spread over the 12 years of compulsory years of schooling. It covers what subjects are taught and the standards children should reach in each subject. Other types of schools such as academies and private schools donâ€™t have to follow the national curriculum. Academies must teach a broad and balanced curriculum including English, maths and science. They must also teach religious education. The national curriculum is organised into four key stages at the end of each key stage, the pupilâ€™s teacher will formally assess their performance to measure the pupilâ€™s progress. This will set targets for learning and will also show how performance will be assessed and then reported. For each subject thereâ€™s a programme of study, it describes what children should learn. Discuss 5 factors that influence learning The influence of other people can have an affect the pupils learning the ways in which this can happen is by the way there family encourage learning if their family encourages and is enthusiastic about learning the student is more likely to be enthusiastic and therefore become a more effective learner if the students family do not promote the benefits of learning this can make the child less enthusiastic giving them an undervalued opinion of learning and education and affecting their capabilities.
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